Aprendendo a aprender: ferramentas mentais poderosas para ajudá-lo a dominar assuntos difíceis (em Português) [Learning How to Learn]

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Este curso dá-lhe acesso fácil a técnicas de aprendizagem de valor inestimável, usadas por especialistas em Arte, Música, Literatura, Matemática, Ciência, Esportes e muitas outras disciplinas.
Vamos aprender sobre a forma como o cérebro usa dois modos de aprendizagem muito diferentes e como ele encapsula (em "pedaços") informações. Também vamos falar sobre ilusões de aprendizagem, técnicas de memória, lidar com a procrastinação, e as melhores práticas apresentadas pela investigação a ser mais eficaz em o ajudar a dominar assuntos difíceis.
Usando essas abordagens, não importa os seus níveis de habilidade em tópicos que você gostaria de dominar, você pode mudar o seu pensamento e mudar sua vida.
Se você já é um especialista, essa "espiada embaixo do capô" lhe dará ideias para turbinar sua aprendizagem de forma bem sucedida, incluindo dicas contra intuitivas para realização de testes, que lhe ajudarão a fazer o melhor uso do seu tempo em deveres de casa e situações de problemas. Se estiver com dificuldades, você verá um tesouro estruturado de técnicas práticas que lhe mostrarão o que precisa fazer para entrar nos trilhos. Se você já quis melhorar em qualquer coisa, este curso vai servir como um guia.
This is a translated version. To join the original English version, visit this page: https://www.coursera.org/learn/learning-how-to-learn
Este curso está disponível também em Espanhol. Para entrar na versão completamente traduzida, visite esta página: https://www.coursera.org/learn/aprendiendo-a-aprender⏎
Este curso está disponível também em Chinês. Para entrar na versão completamente traduzida, visite esta página: https://www.coursera.org/learn/ruhe-xuexi

From the lesson

Renascimento da Aprendizagem e Destravando seu Potencial

Neste módulo vamos falar mais sobre ideias e técnicas importantes que vão aprimorar sua habilidade de aprender. Você também vai descobrir como interagir de maneira mais proveitosa com seus colegas, como reconhecer seus pontos fortes e como evitar a “Síndrome do Impostor”. Pilotos de caça e cirurgiões usam listas de tarefas para ajudá-los com seus deveres — você pode usar uma lista similar para se preparar para suas provas. Finalmente, você vai aprender mais sobre a alegria de viver uma vida cheia de aprendizado!

Ramón y Cajal Distinguished Scholar of Global Digital Learning, McMaster University Professor of Engineering, Industrial & Systems Engineering, Oakland University

Dr. Terrence Sejnowski

Francis Crick Professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies Computational Neurobiology Laboratory

Manuel Ataíde

Khalid Azad has a passion for learning concepts at a deep, intuitive level,

he writes at BetterExplained.com, which serves millions of readers every year and

is used in dozens of university courses.

He's also authored a popular math book, It's a pleasure to welcome Khalid.

Hi Khalid, thanks for joining us I, I have to ask you first off, what got

you interested in this wonderful intuitive approach to learning that you use?

>> You know it actually started with a really frustrating math class I remember I

was in my freshman year at Princeton, you know, I had always enjoyed math in

high school, middle school and I was in my first class and I was just getting

destroyed. It was around the midterm, and I wasn't happy, things weren't going well.

The subject that I'd always liked just wasn't making sense

I remember the finals had come around and I was cramming and cramming and

cramming, and suddenly some analogies started coming to me about twists and

rotations and turns and that really applied to the class, so I was able to

visualize the concepts instead of just looking at the symbols and equations.

And because of that, I didn't really need to memorize anymore,

I could just think through it, and I could walk myself through my mental diagrams and

the equations kind of snapped into place, and so after that I realized that

a lot of learning could become so much more pleasant and more fun after we found

the right mental metaphors, diagrams, and analogies Instead of trying to,

you know, bash our heads against the, the raw definitions.

So from that I started trying to write and share my, my insights that seemed to help me.

>> It sounds like we share the same approach I'm, that's, that's the kind of

thing that I was trying to do, too I finally sort of cottoned on to that.

So you can, can you talk a little bit more about what approach you actually do use?

>> Sure just to keep things straight in my head,

I have this little, mnemonic I use, and I call it the ADEPT Method.

And basically what I'm looking for

in an explanation of something, I try to find an analogy, a Diagram,

an Example, a Plain English description and then a Technical Description.

And the, the general idea is actually kind of a C.D.M, diffused thinking Is that you,

when you're first learning, you want to start with the sort of fuzzy overview and

then gradually sharpen it up, until you get to the technical details at the edge.

So you start with the analogy, the diagram,

you get some examples, you have a plain, plain English description, and

at the very end, that's when you go to the technical description.

And you want to save that really focused thinking, for me, for

last because that's when I already have the framework in place to think about it.

>> Oh I like that, can you, can you share a, a specific example of the ADEPT method?

>> Sure I think one of my favorite topics is actually the the imaginary number,

so, most people myself included for a long time, it is confusing, sound imaginary,

real safe you know, how can we use in real life and after breaking it

down with the method, I was able to find some metaphors that seemed to help me.

>> You just use an analogy, then, to start with this?

>> Yeah, so, in this case, imaginary numbers, a lot of the the time

we'll start the definition, the technical definition, and that doesn't really make

things click one thing that helped me was the analogy about a 90 degree turn.

So if you imagine that negative numbers are sort of a full 180 so

you're going forward, then you turn all the way 180 to backward.

A imaginary number is basically when you start forward you actually just go up, so

instead of going all the way backward you're actually just going up.

So, imagine maybe you're going east and

west negatives are sort of flipping between east and west, but imaginary

number is the idea that hey maybe I should take a 90 degree turn north.

So now you're going along and woop you go north, and

suddenly you're in a different direction, It's not just duress it's a new direction

it's a second dimension really and that's kind of the key analogy behind it.

>> So in, in some sense then this can actually become like a diagram or a map.

>> Exactly, this topic is really easy to visualize because,

we already have the idea of second dimensions and going different directions,

so in my head, I kind of imagine, first a number going along,

and it gets a rotation, which turns and then it turns again.

So I have this mental diagram in my head.

And that actually leads right into an example that well, you know,

a lot of kids wonder, well what happens when you take four left turns?

Well if you keep turning, you'll face back the same direction after four turns, and

with imaginary numbers if you turn four times,

you'll face the positive numbers again.

And so the idea is that your diagram can really, you know,

almost lead to an example that you can figure out intuitively without having to

do a lot of math it kind of worked through the results I got.

>> I used to do something very similar, but

I had, what I had was a visual with a toilet paper roll that was

unrolling because of scrolling across the screen It was a lot of fun but,

but moving on so then you, actually just use a plain English description.

>> yeah, so once you've, wrapped your head around it

an analogy, a diagram, read about the example, start sharpening up what you've understood and

you want to describe it in your own words.

So rather than going right to the technical definitions,

lets think about what happens. I might say that we were moving in one direction and

we moved 90 degrees or we moved into a second dimension or there's kind of a different type

of number, there is one number that goes this way and one type that goes this way.

In your head, you want to get your own understanding,

put it in your own words and eventually you sharpen it up and

can I think a lot of times we try to understand things just by

someone else's words instead of really internalizing it ourselves.

>> Well, I, I think this is the perfect example of the real imaginative world

of mathematics and science and engineering, I mean,

we imagine things in ways that people don't ordinarily imagine and, and

I love how you're approaching this, because it really brings this to life.

But, you, what you do then you

move next on to an actual technical description of what you were describing?

>> Yeah, that's right, so the last step is follow me to use the formal notation that

came up with my little analogy here, its kind of like you have a song in

your head you might be humming it, doo ta dit da doo, but, humming in your head but,

other people don't really know what you're talking about.

You need to find the sheet music, you know,

explain, you know the scale that you're using, and

the notation, the timing, that way somebody else can really have a handle for

the hymn, instead of this little song that's going in your head.

So you want to take, you know, the rough words and

kind of break them down in a formal notation.

In the math world, the notation is "i",

lower case "I" and that actually represents, the imaginary dimension and

it's kind of like the number one but in just that imaginary dimension, It is in

there, now we can start talking about other ideas in a more technical sense.

So when I say, oh I want to face forward and to take two terms, and

I'll be facing negative, what that means is you start with one,

multiply by i, multiply by i again, and you should be facing negative.

Which should be is negative, so

a mathematician might write one times i times i is negative one.

Now you can simplify this you could say, oh, one times i squared equals negative

one, and you can simplify it further by just saying i squared equals -1.

And then the last step, is if you really want to simplify it,

you just take the square root of both sides, and

now you can say that i equal the square root of -1.

Now, this makes sense to us hopefully now because we've been able to

walk through it step by step, and turn our kind of intuitive fuzzy description into

the really technical one, and it's really painful to start with a technical

description I equals the square root of negative one, and try to guess what that

could've meant, and I promise you don't see all the steps ahead of time.

So I realized to myself I really needed to start at the fuzzy level, and

work my way down to technical.

>> Yes I, I think that's the thing about imaginary numbers people often don't

realize that they can dance, that they can twist and

rotate and that's kind of what they do It's quite beautiful actually,

do you have final learning tips for our viewers?"

. .

>> Yea, I think the biggest tip that I might say is just,

have a sense for yourself when something's not clicking.

And realize that it's probably just because of a missing piece. So you know,

in the past they might have just reread the same passage again and

again because it wasn't working, but maybe if you want to defer a diagram,

Google Images or maybe a talk or a slideshow, or

something that might have a different metaphor that can help you.

I realize, you know, with the ADEPT you know,

analogy diagram example plain-English technical, I need all the parts It's kind

of a part of a complete breakfast I need all the different pieces, and

then when I have them, I know the idea is very quick in my mind.

So, if I'm working on something and

it's just a technical, maybe an example, it's usually not enough for

me to really internalize it, so I start searching for the elements there,

I didn't even know that there were other pieces that I should be looking for so for

me, it's kind of a, checklist that helps me kind of zone in on what to do with it.

>> Great well, thank you so much I know our viewers will benefit greatly from

these ideas, which I myself have found really valuable thanks again.