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Subtitles: English

### What you will learn

• You will learn the basic technology of particle accelerators.

• You will understand the basic principles for how particles are accelerated, and how they can be guided.

• You will learn about different ways to monitor the beam.

• You will learn about vacuum: Why we need vacuum in accelerators; Where particles that give rise to pressure comes from; How one create vacuum

#### 100% online

Start instantly and learn at your own schedule.

#### English

Subtitles: English

### Syllabus - What you will learn from this course

Week
1
4 hours to complete

## RF-systems

This module is an introduction to the RF systems of particle accelerators. RF stand for radio frequency and indicates that the systems deal with electromagnetic waves with frequencies that are common for radio systems. The RF system generates electromagnetic waves and guides them down to cavities. The cavities are located along the beam pipe such that the particles pass through the cavities when they travel along the accelerator. When the waves enter the cavity they create as standing wave inside the cavity. it is the electric field of this standing wave that accelerates the particles. In the module we describe the amplifier, which generates and amplifies the electromagnetic waves. We describe different types of waveguides which transport the waves from the amplifier to the cavity. We also describe the most common types of cavities. Most of the system is described without equations but in the texts following the lectures you will find some of the theory for the RF-system.

...
14 videos (Total 36 min), 10 readings, 15 quizzes
14 videos
Energy3m
Coaxial waveguides2m
Rectangular waveguides2m
Computer simulations2m
The circulator1m
Introduction to RF-amplifiers2m
The klystron4m
General properties2m
Drift tube linac (DTL)1m
Elliptical cavity1m
Traveling wave cavity2m
Introduction10m
Basic concepts 110m
A mathematical description of the pillbox cavity10m
A mathematical description of energy in cavities10m
A mathematical description of the coaxial waveguide10m
A mathematical description of rectangular waveguides10m
More on the circulator10m
Gain of amplifiers10m
Drift tube Linac: example10m
Elliptical cavity: example10m
15 practice exercises
Quiz Introduction6m
Outline of RF-system5m
Pill-box cavities10m
Energy5m
Coaxial waveguides6m
Rectangular waveguides2m
Computer simulations4m
Circulator4m
Introduction to amplifiers6m
The klystron8m
General properties6m
Drift tube linac4m
Elliptical cavities6m
Traveling wave cavity4m
Week
2
2 hours to complete

## Magnet technology for accelerators

This module is about the types of magnets that are used in particle accelerators. It introduces dipole magnets, quadrupole magnets, sextupole magnets and octupole magnets, and describe where these are needed and how they are designed. In the most common types of magnets, the magnetic field are produced by currents running in normal conducting wires. When large magnetic fields are required one use superconducting magnets and the module describe how these are designed. There are also cases when quite weakl magnetic fields are required and then one can use permanent magnets. This a green alternative since they have zero power consumption. The permanent magnets are also covered in this module.

...
4 videos (Total 27 min), 1 reading, 5 quizzes
4 videos
Permanent accelerator magnets and insertion devices6m
Magnetic circuits10m
5 practice exercises
Basic concepts18m
Fast ramped magnets10m
Superconducting magnets6m
Permanent magnets and insertion devices6m
Week
3
4 hours to complete

## Beam Diagnostics

In this module we describe how we can measure and monitor various beam parameters in a particle accelerator. We introduce a few examples of common instruments for each specific parameter, starting with beam intensity and beam position, followed by transverse distribution and beam emittance. We also present ways to monitor the longitudinal and the energy distribution. The last section describe how we can determine the amount of particles that the beam loose as it travels through the accelerator.

...
19 videos (Total 45 min), 3 readings, 20 quizzes
19 videos
Wall current monitor2m
Beam Current Transformer1m
Button pick-up1m
Cavity BPM1m
OTR and Scintillating screens5m
Wire scanner and SEM grid3m
An introduction to longitudinal profile50s
Transversely deflecting cavity2m
Streak camera2m
Energy (profile) monitoring: Spectrometer and ToF2m
Energy along a single bunch1m
Introduction to beam loss and machine protection.3m
Ionization chamber2m
Scintillation counter1m
Introduction to lecture on current and position measurements10m
Introduction to lecture on transverse beam profile measurements10m
To measure the beam emittance and the Twiss parameters:30m
20 practice exercises
Motivation to beam diagnostics2m
Important concepts in beam diagnostics12m
Describing the beam6m
Wall current monitor4m
Beam current transformer4m
Button pick up6m
Cavity BPM4m
OTR and scintillation screens4m
Wire scanner and SEM grid6m
Emittance measurements5m
Transversely deflecting cavity2m
Streak camera2m
Energy monitoring: Spectrometer and ToF4m
Energy along a single bunch2m
Introduction to beam loss and machine protection2m
Ionization chamber2m
Scintillation counter2m
Week
4
2 hours to complete

## Basics of Vacuum techniques

This module gives an introduction to basic concepts of vacuum physics and techniques in accelerators. Vacuum regions and the behavior of residual gas in these regions are described. Important phenomena, such as velocity distribution, average collision distance and molecular formation are explained by Maxwell-Boltzmann theory. These phenomena are used to determine vacuum criteria for accelerator systems. Basic concepts of vacuum pumps will be described, and different types of vacuum equipment will be presented. The objective is that the students would understand the behavior of residual gas in Vacuum systems. They should be able to determine Vacuum criteria for a given system. They should also be able to choose proper equipment for Vacuum generation and measurement.

...
11 videos (Total 26 min), 1 reading, 11 quizzes
11 videos
Definition of vacuum regions1m
Composition of residual gas1m
Introduction to pumps59s
Gas-Displacement Pumps2m
Kinetic Vacuum Pumps2m
Gas-Binding Pumps4m
Vacuum Gauges3m
Vacuum components3m
Brief introduction to Maxwell-Boltzmann theory for ideal gas10m
11 practice exercises
Motivation4m
Introduction to pressure/vacuum2m
Three states of residual gases8m
Definition of vacuum regions2m
Composition of residual gases5m
Gas displacement pumps5m
Kinetic vacuum pumps2m
Gas binding pump2m
Vacuum Gauges6m
Vacuum components2m

## Instructors

### Anders Karlsson

Professor Electromagnetic Theory
Department of Electrical and Information Technology

### Pauli Heikkinen

PhD, Chief engineer for the Accelerator Laboratory at the University of Jyväskylää in Finland

### Franz Bødker

R&D Engineer, Ph.D.
Technical University of Denmark

### Maja Olvegård

Post Doc in Beam Diagnostics
Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA, Uppsala University

Lund University was founded in 1666 and has for a number of years been ranked among the world’s top 100 universities. The University has 47 700 students and 7 500 staff based in Lund, Sweden. Lund University unites tradition with a modern, dynamic, and highly international profile. With eight different faculties and numerous research centres and specialized institutes, Lund is the strongest research university in Sweden and one of Scandinavia's largest institutions for education and research. The university annually attracts a large number of international students and offers a wide range of courses and programmes taught in English. In addition, International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) is part of the university and works to advance strategies for sustainable solutions through cutting edge interdisciplinary research, high-quality innovative education, and effective communication and strong partnerships. ...

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